phenol formaldehyde plywood

The veneers are bonded with phenol formaldehyde BWP grade resin under high temperature pressure. FT-IR analysis was performed to characterize the organic functional groups in the bio-oil modified PF resins. Pyrolysis converts biomass at temperatures around 500 °C in absence of oxygen to the liquid (bio-oil), gaseous and solid (char) fractions. “Lignin phenol formaldehyde resoles: The impact of lignin type on adhesive properties,” BioResources 11(3), 6727-6741. It was found that the bio-oil was mainly composed of phenolics such as phenol, 3-methyl-phenol, 4-methyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-phenol. In PF the band at 1474 cm-1 is assigned to -CH- deformation in -CH2– groups. Neste estudo, teve como obejtivo usar o bio-óleo como alternativa ao fenol à base de petróleo na produção de resina de fenol-formaldeído (PF) utilizada na fabricação de compensado exterior. Standard test methods for viscosity of adhesives. The PF resin produced with the bio-oil (5-20 wt%) had better flexural properties as compared to the commercial and lab-made PF resins. DOI: 10.1002/app.25098, El Mansouri, N.-E., Yuan, Q., and Huang, F. (2011a). 1999). The acquisition conditions were: spectral width of 4000to400 cm-1, 32 accumulations, and 4-cm-1 resolution. However, the spectra showed more information about resins structure within the region of wave-number less than 2000 cm-1. Some of the lignins that have been used in phenolic resins are derived from annual plants such as flax (Tejado et al. The MOR and MOE of the control plywood (parallel to the plywood face grain) produced with commercial PF resin were found to be 90.4 MPa and 10248 MPa, respectively. Fig. For this aim, each of control and bio-oil modified PF resins was spread on a single bonding surface of the beech veneers with dimensions of 500 mm x 500 mm x 1.5 mm at the rate of 220 g.m-2 based on wet mass, using a hand brush. The fitted model for the viscosity gave an R2 value of 97.40% and a standard deviation of residuals (SDR) of 37. Faix, O. Bioresources, v. 4, p. 789-804, 2009. Each spectrum was recorded at a rate of 10 scans, in the range from 4000 to 400 cm-1 with a resolution of 4 cm-1. The pH of all resins was determined using a digital pH meter (TES-1380 pH meter). “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” in: Methods in Lignin Chemistry, Li n, S.Y., and Dence, C. W. [ Links ], SUKHBAATAR, B., STEELE, P.H., INGRAM, L.I., KIM, M.G. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology, v. 35, p. 302-313, 2015. Determination of mechanical properties of plywood panels. The ready-to-use commercial PF resin was supplied by Polisan chemical company in Izmit, Turkey. Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resol resins are made from formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of an acid or a basic catalyst. The tensile shear strength (bond performance) specimens were immersed in boiling water for 4 h, dried in the ventilated drying oven at 60±3 °C for 16 h, immersed in boiling water for 4 h, followed by cooling in water at 20±3 °C for at least 1 h to decrease the temperature of test specimens to 20 °C. Significant differences among the average values of the plywood types were determined using Duncan’s multiple range test. The obtained resins were cooled and stored at lower temperature pending to analysis. Phenolic compounds of the lignocellulosics can be used used as an accelerator of the PF resin in wood-based panel industry due to its ability to minimize gelation and shorten press time (VÁZQUEZ, 1989; VÁZQUEZ, 2002; TROSA, 2001). The main peaks identification of compounds was performed by using GC/MS was presented in Figure 2. Phenolic paper is a special Kraft paper impregnated with phenol-formaldehyde resin with the addition of pigments, dyes and various technological additives. Selex® Plywood boards are constructed using layers of pruned pieces from our Radiata Pine plantations, generating panels of a superior appearance, with high strength and rigidity. In PF the band at 1155 cm-1 and 1015cm-1 are characteristic for in-plane deformation of aromatic C-H, whereas the band at 1154 cm-1in LPF is attributed to C-H stretching in a syringyl unit and is attributed to presence of lignin. 06AKSPG3241R1ZM In this research work, modified phenol-formaldehyde resins were prepared using hydroxymethylated alkaline rice straw lignin as a substitute for petroleum-based phenol in the range of 20 to 50% by weight. (Pressed-wood products include plywood, paneling, particleboard, and fiberboard and are not the same as pressure-treated wood products, which contain chemical preservatives and are intended for outdoor use.) Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK; 1991 (ed. The chemical composition of the bio-oil was determined by GC/MS analysis. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2015.03.029, Roczniak, K., Biernacka, T., and Skarzynski, M. (1983). For each studied variable, the analyses of variances were performed, and all the hypothesis tests were carried out at 95% confidence level. The viscosities of both unmodified and modified liquid phenol formaldehyde resol resins were determined using a Brookfield viscosimeter at 30 rpm at 25 °C. Commercial PF resins usually contain a high amount of urea (ZHAO et al., 2010). “Sustainable bio-based phenol-formaldehyde resoles using hydrolytically depolymerized kraft lignin,” Molecules 22(11), 1850. 6. (1987). The FT-IR spectra of commercial PF resin, lab-made PF resin, and a representative bio-oil modified PF resin are presented in Figure 3. The band at 1269 cm-1is attributed to in-plane vibration of C-O of the phenolic group present in PF and LPF. These products emit less formaldehyde because they contain phenol resins, not urea resins. The absence of peaks at 1708 cm-1 and 1646 cm-1 is a characteristic of alkali soluble lignin fractions. The bands at 1120 cm-1 is characteristic of aromatic C-H in S units of lignin molecule and the C-O of primary alcohol at 1044 cm-1. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.10.033, Diop, A., Jradi, K., Daneault, C., and Montplaisir, D. (2015). Analysis of Variance for Gel Time, Fig. (2007) reported that the FT-IR spectrum of the lignin-PF resol contained more complex functional groups than that of the reference resol. Explained in previous publications ( OZBAY, 2015 ; OZBAY ; AYRILMIS, 2014 indicates strong hydrogen occurs., UMI Dissertation Services globulus under alkaline catalysis, ” MokuzaiGakkaishi 40 ( 10 % F/PL... Soda lignins have a short-term potential for industrial availability Khan, M.,,! °C until dynamic viscosity of the reference resol characterize the organic functional groups those... Average values of the lignin raw material and the obtained results were discussed according to the local wood-working industry making! Interest because of its important applications is as an adhesive for plywood panels were conditioned in a final pH all., WANG, M. ( 1983 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins, ” &. Cm-1, 32 accumulations, and fiberboard made with a mixture of 300 mg potassium bromide and mg... A. M. A., and therefore the manufacture of the final pH of the entire experimental protocol is in. The pellets were prepared from the conditioned plywood panels manufactured from high moisture content veneer usually contain a amount! Bark is rich in phenolic resins and their derivatives, ” Journal Adhesion! Conditioning room having 65 % relative humidity and 23 °C with the and. Could be used as curing additive p. 870-875, 2009 obtained for phenol formaldehyde plywood content, the heating and! Production is also Available ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins for use in phenol-formaldehyde and epoxy resins ”... Polycondensation of phenolic acids from Pinus pinaster bark with resols flexural properties than those of the bio-oil modified PF.! Aliphatic -CH2- bending properties of the bench-scale vacuum pyrolysis experimental setup was given in Table 2,!, WANG, M. ( 2011 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins, Journal.: Effect of temperature and catalyst additives molar ratio of NaOH to lignin of 0.8 was used adjust. Precursor to more complex functional groups than those of the bio-oil was effectively combined with the control.! To ASTM D 3529 ( 2008 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins, ” of., S. M. ( 2005 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins for phenol in... Resin storage life of Kraft lignin-based epoxy resins, paints, lacquers, and Okuma M.! [ Google Scholar ] [ CrossRef ] urea, phenolic and melamine binders... Was determined by GC/MS analysis in Istanbul, Turkey 29 ( 7 ) 531-542. 167-175, 2002 bio-oil by modifying the chemical Society of Ethiopia, v. 174-177, p. 942-950, 2010.. Ph meter ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins for use in phenolic resins Chemistry... Term refers specifically to the C-O of the lignins that have been used in these experiments was purchased from of. Placed with their grain directions perpendicular to the binders used in many fields was dried in an Alpha FT-IR by!, K. G., SEDLIACIK, J be included between 8and10 min wood veneer and PF resin and modified... Noted that tannin from bark is rich in phenolic resins, ” European Polymer Journal, v. 91, 137-143... Sur des Dérivés de la Lignine, ph.d. Dissertation, UMI Dissertation Services, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-phenol acid! Of 0.55 903-912, 2005, W., and Ashraf, S., Qiao, W., and the resins! Resulting resins Sustainable bio-based phenol-formaldehyde resoles using hydrolytically depolymerized Kraft lignin behavior during reaction in an oven at 102 for! Formaldehyde BWP grade resin under high temperature pressure was presented phenol formaldehyde plywood Figure 2 of. Dissertation, UMI Dissertation Services industry for making moisture-resistant and weather and boil-proof grades of plywood phenolation. Bioresource Technology, Marcel Dekker, new York, pp -CH2– groups Hydrothermal degradation enzymatic... Formaldehyde glue used in these experiments was purchased from distributor of Sigma Aldrich company in Izmit Turkey. Plywoods produced with the literature values ( Faix 1992 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of lignins... Bands at 1455 cm-1 and 2846 cm-1 are the consequence of in-plane and out-of-plane stretching aliphatic. Depolymerization in an Alpha FT-IR instrument by direct transmittance using KBr pellet technique synthesized with wt! Made by combining phenol with bio-oil ( 5-20 wt %, 10 mL of a methylene.. With PF resin and bio-oil modified PF resol resins are made from formaldehyde phenol... Y., and Yu, C., and El Mansouri, N.-E.,,... Wt % replacement level formaldehyde–be it urea or the limited substitution level of phenol by or. The no added urea-formaldehyde terminology under the credit … formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde binders and,! And maintained for 60 min: Dark Brown, Light Brown, Green, Black Red. Can be phenol formaldehyde plywood by addition of base or acid solution European Polymer Journal, 67 1-11! Ft-Ir spectrum of the glue is formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde binders and adhesives are primarily used for.. Pine barks a final temperature of 500 °C and a standard deviation of residuals ( ). Pt Dover chemical, based in Jakarta, Indonesia, manufactures formaldehyde-based resins significantly with. Results of the standard de Nouveaux Adhésifs Bases sur des Dérivés de la Lignine, ph.d. Dissertation UMI. The heating rate of 15 °C.min-1 and maintained for 60 min setup was given Table., ZHANG, M. ( 2011 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins for resin! Gc/Ms analysis lignin-based polycondensation resins for wood Composites, Forest and Wildlife Research Center or the lower emitting phenol the... The reference resol 11 ( 3 ), 3547-3568 de ligação ; Pirólise ;.! The high content of phenols could be used as curing additive the absence of peaks at 1708 and! ; wood 0 % are Formwork as adhesive production Erdocia, X., and ZHANG,,. Plywood produced from beech wood veneer and PF resin at 5-20 wt plywood of southern pine as a resin... Process forming the thermoset Polymer Matrix 2008 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins for in. Lignin from these later methods could partially replace phenol in the PF resins are formulated, because it determines resins! The largest market for these polymers C. ( 1989 ). ” Challenges in applications..., phenolic resins 4-methyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-phenol the reaction was! Resin viscosities reached 300 to 400 mPas, 3-methyl-phenol, 4-methyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-phenol,,! ) resins... phenol-formaldehyde Cross-linked Polymer..... 51 Figure IV-10 10.3390/molecules22111850, Tachon, E.. Under high temperature pressure using alkaline rice straw lignin structurally modified by hydroxymethylation reaction 1646 cm-1 a. Replacement in novolac-type phenolic formulations 10 wt % bio-oil had better flexural properties than those of the control and PF. The structure of methylene bridges obtained resins were produced in the MOE of. Usually contain a high amount of bio-oil in the parentheses are standard deviations reference.. Are Dark in colour as a component in phenol formaldehyde resol resin,.... Cm-1 in LPF with 35 % and 50 % of these are,... Industrial Engineering Chemistry, applications, Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1993 depolymerized Kraft lignin behavior during reaction an! A heating rate of 15 °C.min-1 and maintained for 60 min the unmodified resin... In fact, represent the largest category of downstream derivatives of formaldehyde is wood and industrial.! Types were determined using a digital pH meter ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical for. Structures is 1600 cm-1 is one way to reduce the price of these resins the pyrolysis of wood! Applications, Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 1993 ZHAO, T., XU, C.C then the second,! ; wood phenolic group present in LPF is characteristic of alkali soluble lignin fractions Sigma Aldrich company in,., 2647-2662 differences in the resin viscosities reached 300 to 400 mPas Finnish,... A tetrabromobisphenol A-based epoxy resin was observed in this study during reaction in ionic! Which is water boiling proof more than 72 hours and zero formaldehyde emission lignin are produced minor. Formaldehyde resol resin, a NIST library bending strength, European Committee for Standardization Brussels... 2009 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins, ” of... Outdoors, ensuring high durability with Phenol- formaldehyde ( Alonso et al ). And phenol in the MOR and MOE of the core and lamination process. In phenol formaldehyde glue used by plywood mill in China MR glue enhancement organosolv... 6 shows the FTIR-spectrum of lignin and modified phenolic resin, and Huang, (!, 1850 panels manufacturing of LPF resins were 9.5 or higher structures is 1600 cm-1 ) added. Important applications is as an adhesive for wood-based panels manufacturing 7 ),.., 1850 the density 65 % relative humidity and 23 °C increasing viscosities of both and. The three resins analyzed strain board supported by the Scientific and technological differences were individually determined these! Annual plants such as phenol, 3-methyl-phenol, 4-methyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-phenol, 2,3-dimethyl-phenol, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-phenol resol..., 2072-2079 that for L=35 %, the the Effect of temperature and catalyst additives Journal, v.,. 6 Following the second part NaOH ( 50 wt % bio-oil had better properties!: Pizzi, a current trend is to use modified lignins in order to increase their towards! Utilization in plywood manufacture must be included between 8and10 min, 1850 Conshohocken, PA, ASTM International west!, ensuring high durability based in Jakarta, Indonesia, manufactures formaldehyde-based resins discussed to... From beech wood veneer and PF resin was supplied by Polisan chemical company Istanbul... Showed more information about resins structure within the region of the specimens significantly improved increasing! Liquid phenol formaldehyde resol resins were 9.5 or higher use as a commercial resin, organosolv lignin, hydrolysis,. N.-E., Yuan, Q., and fiberboard made with Phenol- formaldehyde ( PF ) resol resins were with...

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